[Part 1 here]
Nor is it true that Christ's dying for all and everyone (which is a dream) makes salvation possible to all, so that the Covenant is Precheable to all upon condition of believing. ...
And it is true: whether all believe or none at all believe, and whether all or none at all be saved, as is this (whosoever shall keep the Law perfectly, shall be justified and saved by the works of the Law.) But, it makes neither faith nor salvation possible to Pagans and Reprobates, nor perfect obedience in doing the Law nor Justification or salvation by the works of the law possible to any living man. But the Question is, whether the connection of the former be made true by the decree and revealed will of God promising life to the believer, by no means, but only by this, because Christ died for all and everyone. ... This must be proved either by Scripture, or by some solid reason from Scripture; for it saith this, Reprobates cannot have life by believing in Christ crucified for them: except it be true that Christ was crucified for them, except they also believe that Christ rose from the dead, and ascended and intercedes in Heaven for them... (p. 349-350)
...the Covenant of Grace .... was it not a Covenant of its own nature that might at any age, be Preached to all Nations. But what is then revealed in these decrees? (if the Reprobates believe, they shall be saved). Answer: Not God's intention conditional or absolute to save them, or to give them faith or grace merited by Christ' death, to believe, for then some good-will and love of election, the Lord should bear toward the election of such, and should desire all the Reprobate to be saved, so that they would believe, ... , therefore this conditional decree (if all and everyone believe, all and everyone shall be saved) can infer no love of God through Christ to the persons of all and everyone to have them saved, more than this can infer a love of saving all and everyone, to be in God or to have been in the Lord, ... In a word, no simple conditional propositions can infer the desire or good will of God to the person or men or to have the things done, except God effectually work the condition ... ... For this connective proposition may stand true with the salvation of all angles, or all men, or no angels, or no men, according as the Lord shall be pleased of his good pleasure and free grace to work, or not to work the condition of moving the will of Angles and men to keep the Law. And therefore these connections nihil ponunt asoluti, they place nothing absolutely to PERSONS, but only to THINGS, to wit, 1) That it is the duty and obligation of all angels and men to perform absolute obedience to the Law, as they would be justified and saved by the Law, and it's the duty of all men in the Visible Church to believe in Christ if they would be justified and saved in Christ. (p. 353-355)
(Bold and CAPS added)
Samuel Rutherford, The Covenant of Life Opened, Edited by C. Matthew McMahon (New Lenox, IL, USA: Puritan Publications, 2005. Original published on 1654)
It has been said, "The more things change, the more they stay the same" or, to put it biblically, "there is nothing new under the sun" (Eccl. 1:9). Rutherford attacked the idea of a well-meant offer found within the Amyraldian movement in his time. Does this objection sounds familiar: "Reprobates cannot have life by believing in Christ crucified for them: except it be true that Christ was crucified for them, except they also believe that Christ rose from the dead, and ascended and intercedes in Heaven for them". In other words, God must be presented as purchasing universal atonement for all elect and reprobates in Gospel preaching, according to the WMO promoters.
Rutherford rejected this idea, albeit in rather long-winded prose. In Rutherford's view, God desires the things in salvation rather than people when viewed in the context of Gospel offer (Conditional proposition). It is the duty and obligation of all men to repent and believe the Gospel, of which these actions in the fulfilment of the Law qua things are pleasing to God. But God does not desire and intend conditional or absolute to save them.